In this issue, we include three separate research articles prepared by our party committees on the task assigned. Although the main problems discussed in the articles are not directly related to each other, they contain certain links as they cover the needs of the period and meet on a certain ground in the context of the general problems of the process.
The first article deals with the question of religion. In the article titled "Research and Discussion on the Question of Religion", a detailed research has been made on the subject with its historical roots and conceptual analysis dimension, and it has been attempted to make an explanation and discuss the main issues of the file. One of these titles is the general approach of MLM ideology to the problem of religion and the relevant attitude in the struggle for revolution. Another is the situation peculiar to our country and the evaluations of "Islam" in particular.
The natural continuation of this is the association of the ruling classes with religion and the practice of using it in the history of our country. Another issue that needs to be discussed is the evaluation of "political Islam" within the framework of national liberation struggles and national resistance movements. Hezbollah in Turkey this regard, Al Qaeda, et al. It is clear that Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in Palestine, the Moro Liberation Front in the Philippines and similar organizations in Africa cannot be equated.
First RP, after February 28, AKP, which was shaped by carving from it within the framework of the USA's "moderate Islam" project; Not only did it have “power” in central and local governments, it provided a serious organization (staff accumulation) and opened up an important space for itself on a wide base in a period of 10 years. It is known that the strengthening of the client capital, which is coded as "green", and the raising of the main sect organizations, especially the USA, have a great role in this.
The most important argument used in this process was Islamic values. It was noteworthy that positive responses were received from a considerable segment of the society. While the fixed potential of the MSP tradition before 1980 did not exceed 5 percent, today / today climbing to 20-25 percent, then 47 percent with Islamic references brought along discussions on Iran, Egypt and Malaysia in the context of “threat” and “danger”. On the other hand, at the point where a considerable number of people talked about being a "Muslim democrat" with the support they received from the imperialist lobbies, it was revealed that the approach to the "problem of religion" should be focused on more comprehensively.
In Engels' words, this process of religion, which is "a mental process journey in the minds of people", is determined by "material living conditions". (K. Marx- F. Engels, On Religion, p: 298, Inter ed.) So the solution to the problem lies in putting an end to these conditions. Enlightenment activity is undoubtedly necessary and important, but it is neither priority nor solvent. The hypocritical policies of the Kemalist and secularist fraudsters create serious confusion in the revolutionary ranks at this very point. There is no doubt that our margin of deviation and error will increase at the point where the issue intersects with the approach disorder regarding the "Alevi problem".
Religion carries extremely delicate balances, although it is of great importance that we cannot remain indifferent. As Marx said about religion, "it is both an expression of true misery and a protest against poverty" (ibid., P. 87), the way to free the religiously entangled poor from these chains is to make an exit from the main wheels of exploitation. Regarding his mode of operation, Lenin says the following:
“To reveal that the yoke of religion over humanity is a result and reflection of the economic yoke in society is nothing but bourgeois narrow-mindedness. Unless the proletariat is enlightened by its own struggle against the dark forces of capitalism, it is impossible to enlighten the proletariat, no matter how many leaflets are distributed and how many words are spoken. (…) That is why we do not state that we are atheists in our Program and we have to behave like that. That is why we do not and must not prevent the proletarians who maintain their old prejudices from joining our party.-03.12.1905- ”(On Religion, p: 14, October Pub.)
The subject of the second article is "alienation". The article titled "On alienation and its reflection on the proletarian revolutionary ranks" is a continuation of the work in line with the orientation determined in our 8th Party Conference. Within the scope of the file opened over two "cultural degeneration" articles previously published in Communist 61, a certain depth is attempted with the concept of "alienation".
As we know, "alienation" in the sense used by Marx; a person, group or society, through an action or situation, becomes unfamiliar with the results or products of their original activity and / or the nature and / or other people in which they live, as well as themselves. Undoubtedly, the evolutionary processes of societies play a decisive role in this. However, these processes, which are spread over very long periods of time, contain a series of stages in itself, that the feature of alienation that we have tried to explain above gives vitality to a phenomenon embodied by various actors in society. The most important of these actors that interests us is of course the Proletarian Party.
For the Proletarian Party, alienation is above all a state of detachment from its class essence, of being thrown into a position contrary to its own identity. As the clearest indicator of this, it should be accepted that he has a political-practical attitude that is not in line with his line and strategic line. It is inevitable that this process, in which all destructions will be experienced in a chain, such as deterioration in the organizational structure, detachment from the advanced masses, and departure from the revolutionary goal, will inevitably defeat the Proletarian Party. This is one of the slightest consequences of alienation ...
The topic of the third article is post-modernism. In the article titled "On anarchism and post-modernism in the context of locality-centrality relationship"; Especially after the 90s, purgeism, which blew as the product of the multi-directional ideological attacks developed by the imperialist-capitalist system, and post-modernism in the context of a manifestation of all kinds of petty bourgeois ideology that had an echo in the ranks of the people. These ideological attacks, which are a very comprehensive subject with different country examples and different dimensions, should actually be handled and discussed in a larger file.
There are many subjects under the title of "Post-modernism". In a sense, what is highlighted here is the dimension of locality-centrality. The issue is aimed to be discussed together with the thesis that the role of NGOs, not targeting the central government, and that revolutions have lost function. What is striking here is the meeting of non-governmentalists, "anti-power", "non-revolutionary", in a formula of "guidance" from the local to the center or by contenting with only the locals.
It should not be wrong at all to group this ideological company group, which overlaps with anarchism in many ways, which literally spreads social forums, and that shelves concepts such as "class" and "armed struggle", under a categorical heading as post-modernism.
All three articles should be read, discussed and evaluated in all committees of our party. All committees refer to all party units within the scope, including sympathetic organizations. There is no special discussion within the party on these issues. However, it will be very useful to criticize, evaluate and contribute to all three subjects at the committee level and, more importantly, to make studies (preparation of articles) in a similar scope.
The inertia we have subjected to criticism regarding the reviews and debates on the articles and reports we published in the previous Communists has not been overcome. For this, we do not think it is helpful to say more at this stage. It is understood that the problem can be overcome in the process. However, this does not prevent reminding of periodic tasks.
In today's world where the International Communist Movement is experiencing serious ideological and political problems and internal conflicts and debates, especially RIM, are spreading to the public, we have to achieve a high political level in order to contribute to the process and be effective. For this, it is clear that we need to achieve an intense ideological-political development line both within ourselves and in the relations we have established with sister parties.
In order for the Communist to become an effective platform on this matter, it will call for the active participation of the party cadres in the process, as well as the developments in the coming period. However, this task is still valid. The documents being published touch on the subject in certain aspects, and some documents are presented to the public either through other publications or other means. The comrades should share their studies, research and evaluations with CC-MoH.
WHAT IS YOUR NAME?
Approaches of the idealist camp in defining religion
The Emergence of Religion
Criticism of Religion
B-THE EVOLUTION OF RELIGION AND THE STATE
- Religion in Primitive-Communal Society
- Religion and State in Slave Society
a-) Identification of God and King
b-) The Evolution of the Polytheistic Religions and the Slave State
c-) Identification of the Godless Religions with the State
- Religion and State in Feudal Society
a-) Religion and State in Christian Europe
b-) Religion and State in the Islamic World
c-) The Case of India: Hinduism
- Religion and State in Capitalist Society
- Religion and State in Socialism
SOME HOLY COVERS OF THE C-RELIGION AND THE IDENTITY OF THE STATE
1-) Some Sacred Shrouds of the Divine Religions and the Theocratic State
Servitude and Allegiance Culture
Sin and Satan
Heaven and hell
2-) Some Sacred Shrouds of Godless Religions
Servitude and Allegiance
Asceticism and Destiny
Scarce Craftsmanship and Work Being Worship
D-RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL STRUGGLES
Political Struggles and Religion in the Christian World
Political Struggles and Religion in the Islamic World
Political Struggles and Religion in India
Conciliating Qualities of Some Religions Not Identified with the State
Religion, Racism and Nationalism
E TURKEY AND TURKEY IN RELIGIOUS KİRDİSTANI
1-) Religion in the Ottoman Empire
2-) The Establishment of the Republic of Turkey and the Role of Religion and Secularism in the Construction of Kemalism
3-) The Perception of Secularism in the Republic of Turkey and Its Role in Conflict Among Dominant Classes
4-) Secularism Moderate Islam of the Republic of Turkey
F-PROLETARIAN PARTY'S APPROACH TO SECULITY AND RELIGION
Approach to Secularism Debates
Approach to Religion
The definition and criticism of religion takes shape according to the ideological approach. The religious thought of the human species, which started in trees, has evolved to the present day. Until capitalist society, religion was identified with the state and politics. For this reason, history can easily be shown as the history of religions and cultures. In the capitalist system, although this identity has been broken, religion has not lost much of its power and influence. The critique of religion is therefore a critique of human history and an integral part of the class struggle.
Today, it has become an official religion of all states. The separation of religion from the state does not prevent religion from being an effective tool. Since the existence of the bourgeoisie is based on exploitation, it cannot fail to use such an effective means of manipulation such as religion. Religion has been one of the most effective tools used by the imperialist bourgeoisie to justify its domination and intensify exploitation both in its colonies and semi-colonies. Therefore, in capitalist society, "science, modernity, information age, democracy" etc. rhetoric has changed not the effect of religion but its form.
With the 90's, the influence of religion on social and political life has increased. With the loss of prestige of socialism, the masses concentrated on seeking identity in the lane of religion or nationalism. This situation has created wide ground for the basic ideological attacks of imperialism. The "globalization, the new world order" and the "clash of civilizations" built on this basis and the "moderate Islam project", which is the biggest ideological attack of imperialism of the last century, were developed in order to bless liberalism on the basis of denial of classes and class struggle. One of the most effective tools used in these attacks was religion.
The struggle against religion includes the struggle not only against its known classical form, but also against the idealism that post-modernism, which is the defense of religions in the form of "new spiritism and new mysticism", is based on the philosophies of uncertainty and chaos. The fact that post-modernism denies objective knowledge, confines reality to the subject (individual) and leaves beyond it to unknown, naturally breeds religious thought and mysticism.
Besides, "information age, space age, electronic-technology age etc." According to the surveys, the number of those who believe that mysticism and supernatural events and the positions of zodiacs and stars determine life constitute almost half of the population in the imperialist-capitalist countries where information is the most in this period. Therefore, the struggle against religion involves the struggle against idealist mystical ideas not only against classical religions and their extensions but also against the "scientific religion" of post-modernism based on quantum physics, and tries to create a mentality that puts the rational science forward.
The intense influence of religion in the world and in Anatolia and the use of this effect by the exploiting-ruling classes to intensify the exploitation creates the necessity of studying religion. As we enter the 21st century, imperialism's placing religion at the center of its ideological attacks increases this necessity. The ruling collaborator classes and imperialism use religion as an effective weapon to drag the masses after them and to stifle the consciousness of the masses of their class interests.
By giving religion new forms (such as moderate Islam or the Pope "ceasing to be the representative of God") they adapt religion to their own interests. Thus, the masses cannot approach the troubles, pain, oppression ... as a class, thanks to the religious veil. Nation, sect-religion, gender etc. The masses gathered around identities can easily follow the ruling classes. Thus, while the masses linger in the "war of civilizations and cultures", the imperialists and their local collaborators can multiply their profits.
Religion is the most effective tool that stuns the class interests and consciousness of the working people and the oppressed. Religion, which directs the objective approach to nature and society with completely idealistic and reverse consciousness, can effectively exist in all the capillaries of social life. This broad influence of religion creates a great advantage for the ruling exploiting classes. Even when the sovereigns appear to be fighting religion, they can follow the masses with new religious forms.
Therefore, in order to better understand the masses, to organize them and to eliminate the policies of the exploiting classes, it is necessary to analyze and criticize religion historically in MLM style. In order not to fall into right and left opportunism and bourgeois narrow-mindedness in approaching religion, the consciousness of MLMs in their approach to religion should be clear. The two basic conditions for achieving this clarity are to assimilate Marxism's approach to religion and to establish a connection with the present by making the historical study of religion on a dialectical materialist basis.
Therefore, KP's approach to religion rises on these bases. We see most succinctly in Lenin what the attitude of KP should be in approaching religion. Lenin states that "religion is the opium of the people" is the cornerstone of Marxism's approach to religion. However, it also reveals the dangers of treating this determination as the narrow-mindedness of bourgeois atheism. Bourgeois materialism and left opportunism demand the immediate abolition of religion by fighting religion from the front. Right opportunism, on the other hand, recommends reconciliation with religion "in order not to frighten the masses". Lenin states that these two extreme approaches will tear the KP away from the masses. Lenin emphasizes the dual nature of KP's approach to religion; KP demands that religion be a private matter vis-à-vis the state; but it certainly does not treat religion as a private matter vis-à-vis the party. (Lenin, On Religion, Pg: 8, Inter Publications)
In order for the state to complete its political evolution, the state should have nothing to do with religion. The state does not grant any privileges to religious or atheists; not recognize. From this point of need Turkey and Kurdistan as well as in other countries, religion, policies for more separation from the state should be produced; It should be supported. The main reason for CP not to treat religion as a private matter is the social and political influence of religion. If the KP treats religion as a private matter in its propaganda, as opposed to the state, it is followed in the same track as liberalism. Therefore, KP strictly observes this dual distinction.
We said that KP treats religion as a social-political issue, not as a private matter. But what will be the limits to this? Left opportunists insist that atheism be put on the party program. Lenin, on the other hand, argued that KP's propaganda must include atheism; however, he states that atheism cannot be included in the party program. For the struggle against religion must be distinguished from bourgeois narrow-mindedness and radicalism. Marxism reveals that religion cannot be abolished right now, religion can wither away. This withering away will be possible with the collapse of the capitalist system, from which the origins of religion take the water of life. Lenin explains the roots of religion and the reasons why religion can still survive to those who cannot establish the link between the abolition of religion and the economic-political struggle:
“The struggle against religion should not be limited to an abstract ideological sermon; He should not be allowed to come to the same point with such a sermon. This struggle must be linked to the concrete practice of the class movement aimed at eliminating the social origins of religion. Why is religion held within the back strata of the urban proletariat, within the broad strata of the semi-proletariat and within the peasant mass? From the ignorance of the people, he answers, bourgeois progressive, radical and bourgeois materialist. So: Down with religion, long live atheism, the spread of atheist views is our main duty. The Marxist says: This is wrong. Such an understanding is a superficial, bourgeois narrow-minded cultural carrier. Such an understanding explains the roots of religion carefully enough, not materialistically, but idealistically. In modern capitalist countries these roots are mainly of a social nature. Social oppression of the working masses, everyday and every hour, war, earthquake etc. its apparent helplessness in the face of the moving forces of capitalism, which has inflicted the worst troubles and dreadful suffering a thousand times more than all extraordinary events like; The deepest roots of religion should be sought here today. " (Lenin, supra, P: 17, Inter Publications)
Marks; “(D) inward alienation is only in the realm of consciousness, in the inner life of man; whereas, economic alienation is real-life alienation, and therefore includes two aspects. He said (Marx, 1844 Manuscripts, P: 112) Therefore, as both Marx and Lenin stated, the survival of religion is possible with the existence of private property and the capitalist system. The abolition of religion may therefore be possible as a result of economic-political struggles against private property and the capitalist system. On this basis, while workers and other laborers must be equipped with scientific thinking against the drug effects of religion, on the other hand, any understanding of the division of the masses according to their religious beliefs must be fought. All political-economic activities / struggles must be based on the class interests of the masses, not their religious beliefs.
Religion, in Marx's words, is that man sees the world with an inverse consciousness, by abstracting himself from the laws of nature and society. This reverse consciousness constantly creates religion as a way of enduring the increasing suffering and misery of the masses. Religion makes the "soulless world" bearable. Although religion emerges as a way of making sense of nature by the helpless person in the face of the forces of nature, in its evolutionary history it gradually begins to derive its source from social laws, not nature. As man's domination of nature increased, his class contradictions also increased. These class contradictions also gave religion new forms. Thus, in the history of class societies, religions have essentially shaped class struggle.
Capitalism has only changed the form of this reality. Because capitalism finds life on exploitation and oppression just like other class systems. The roots of religion are also fed from this in capitalist society. By creating new religions under the name of secularism, the bourgeoisie tries to prevent the masses from grasping the social laws-class struggle and struggling on this basis. Although secularism is described as the "separation of religion and state affairs", it prevents the masses from living and becoming conscious according to the laws of nature and society, in line with the essence of religious thought.
Although secularism abolished the identity of religion with the state, it could neither prevent the state from being an official religion nor the dichotomy of the masses with religion. On the contrary, it has been used for the further division of the working people, in accordance with the traditional policy of the bourgeoisie of "divide-smash-rule". With the definition of religion as freedom of belief and conscience, the scope of liberalism that sanctifies the individual has expanded. Thus, "secularism, modernity" etc. their rhetoric was used essentially to further divide the laborers.
In the age of imperialism and proletarian revolutions, the continued strengthening of religion and its strengthening the ruling classes make the struggle against religion an integral part of the class struggle. The MLM analysis of religion is among the revolutionary tasks in a geography like Anatolia, which is a mosaic of religions and where the influence of religion is quite high today as it has been for thousands of years.
The more widely and scientifically the analysis and critique of religion are made, the greater the clarity of religion will be. For this reason, it will be useful to first touch upon the starting points in the critique and analysis of religion.